The 16th Maine was organized at Augusta, Maine, and mustered into Federal service for a three-year enlistment on August 14, 1862. The regiment lost 181 enlisted men killed in action or died of wounds out of 1,907 men. An additional 578 members were wounded in action, 259 died of disease, and 76 died in Confederate prisons.
The 16th Maine is particularly noted for their heroism during the Battle of Gettysburg, when the regiment was all but destroyed sacrificing themselves to allow some 16,000 other Union soldiers to retreat.
The regiment was discharged from service on June 5, 1865.